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Wild Wales by George Borrow Its People, Language and Scenery
A country interesting in many respects.
- Chapter 1
Proposed Excursion - Knowledge of Welsh - Singular Groom -Harmonious Distich - Welsh Pronunciation - Dafydd Ab Gwilym.
- Chapter 2
The Starting - Peterborough Cathedral -Anglo-Saxon Names - Kaempe Viser - Steam -Norman Barons - Chester Ale - Sion Tudor - Pretty Welsh Tongue.
- Chapter 3
Chester - The Rows - Lewis Glyn Cothi - Tragedy of Mold - Native of Antigua - Slavery and the Americans - The Tents - Saturday Night.
- Chapter 4
Sunday Morning - Tares and Wheat - Teetotalism - Hearsay - Irish Family - What Profession? - Sabbath Evening - Priest or Minister - Give us God.
- Chapter 5
Welsh Book Stall - Wit and Poetry - Welsh of Chester - Beautiful Morning - Noble Fellow - The Coiling Serpent - Wrexham Church - Welsh or English? - Codiad yr Ehedydd.
- Chapter 6
Llangollen - Wyn Ab Nudd - The Dee - Dinas Bran.
- Chapter 7
Poor Black Cat - Dissenters - Persecution - What Impudence!
- Chapter 8
The Mowers - Deep Welsh - Extensive View - Old Celtic Hatred - Fish Preserving - Smollet's Morgan.
- Chapter 9
The Dinner - English Foibles - Pengwern - The Yew-Tree - Carn-Lleidyr - Applications of a Term.
- Chapter 10
The Berwyn - Mountain Cottage - The Barber's Pole.
- Chapter 11
Welsh Farm-House - A Poet's Grandson - Hospitality - Mountain Village - Madoc - The Native Valley - Corpse Candles - The Midnight Call.
- Chapter 12
A Calvinistic-Methodist - Turn for Saxon - Our Congregation - Pont y Cyssyltau - Catherine Lingo.
- Chapter 13
Divine Service - Llangollen Bells - Iolo Goch - The Abbey - Twm o'r Nant - Holy Well - Thomas Edwards
- Chapter 14
Expedition to Ruthyn - The Column - Slate Quarries - The Gwyddelod - Nocturnal Adventure.
- Chapter 15
The Turf Tavern - Don't Understand - The Best Welsh - The Maids of Merion - Old and New - Ruthyn - The Ash Yggdrasill.
- Chapter 16
Baptist Tomb-Stone - The Toll-Bar - Rebecca - The Guitar.
- Chapter 17
John Jones and his Bundle - A Good Lady - The Irishman's Dingle - Ab Gwilym and the Mist - The Kitchen - The Two Individuals - The Horse-Dealer - I can manage him - The Mist Again.
- Chapter 18
Venerable Old Gentleman - Surnames in Wales - Russia and Britain -Church of England - Yriarte - The Eagle and his Young - Poets of the Gael - The Oxonian - Master Salisburie.
- Chapter 19
The Vicar and his Family - Evan Evans - Foaming Ale -Llam y Lleidyr - Baptism - Joost Van Vondel - Over to Rome - The Miller's Man - Welsh and English.
- Chapter 20
Huw Morris - Immortal Elegy - The Valley of Ceiriog -Tangled Wilderness - Perplexity - Chair of Huw Morris - The Walking Stick - Huw's Descendant - Pont y Meibion.
- Chapter 21
The Gloomy Valley - The Lonely Cottage - Happy Comparison - Clogs - The Alder Swamp - The Wooden Leg - The Militiaman - Death-bed Verses.
- Chapter 22
Llangollen Fair - Buyers and Sellers - The Jockey - The Greek Cap.
- Chapter 23
An Expedition - Pont y Pandy - The Sabbath - Glendower's Mount - Burial Place of Old - Corwen - The Deep Glen - The Grandmother - The Roadside Chapel.
- Chapter 24
Cerrig y Drudion - The Landlady - Doctor Jones - Coll Gwynfa - The Italian - Men of Como - Disappointment - Weather-Glasses - Southey.
- Chapter 25
Lacing-up High-lows - The Native Village - Game Leg - Croppies Lie Down - Keeping Faith - Processions - Croppies Get Up - Daniel O'Connell.
- Chapter 26
Ceiniog Mawr - Pentre Voelas - The Old Conway - Stupendous Pass - The Gwedir Family - Capel Curig - The Two Children - Bread - Wonderful Echo - Tremendous Walker.
- Chapter 27
Bangor - Edmund Price - The Bridges - Bookselling - Future Pope - Wild Irish - Southey.
- Chapter 28
Robert Lleiaf - Prophetic Englyn - The Second Sight - Duncan Campbell - Nial's Saga - Family of Nial - Gunnar - The Avenger.
- Chapter 29
Snowdon - Caernarvon - Maxen Wledig - Moel y Cynghorion - The Wyddfa - Snow of Snowdon - Rare Plant.
- Chapter 30
Gronwy Owen - Struggles of Genius - The Stipend.
- Chapter 31
Start for Anglesey - The Post-Master - Asking Questions - Mynydd Lydiart - Mr Pritchard - Way to Llanfair.
- Chapter 32
Leave Pentraeth - Tranquil Scene - The Knoll - The Miller and his Wife - Poetry of Gronwy - Kind Offer - Church of Llanfair - No English - Confusion of Ideas - The Gronwy - Notable Little Girl - The Sycamore Leaf - Home from California.
- Chapter 33
Boxing Harry - Mr Bos - Black Robin - Drovers - Commercial Travellers.
- Chapter 34
Northampton - Horse-Breaking - Snoring.
- Chapter 35
Brilliant Morning - Travelling with Edification - A Good Clergyman - Gybi.
- Chapter 36
Moelfre - Owain Gwynedd - Church of Penmynnydd - The Rose of Mona.
- Chapter 37
Mental Excitation - Land of Poets - The Man in Grey - Drinking Healths - The Greatest Prydydd - Envy - Welshmen not Hogs - Gentlemanly Feeling - What Pursuit? - Tell him to Walk Up - Editor of the TIMES - Careful Wife - Departure.
- Chapter 38
Inn at L- The Handmaid - The Decanter - Religious Gentleman - Truly Distressing - Sententiousness - Way to Pay Bills.
- Chapter 39
Oats and Methodism - The Little Girl - Ty Gwyn - Bird of the Roof - Purest English - Railroads - Inconsistency - The Boots.
- Chapter 40
Caer Gyby - Lewis Morris - Noble Character.
- Chapter 41
The Pier - Irish Reapers - Wild Irish Face - Father Toban - The Herd of Swine - Latin Blessing.
- Chapter 42
Gage of Suffolk - Fellow in a Turban - Town of Holyhead - Father Boots - An Expedition - Holy Head and Finisterrae -Gryffith ab Cynan - The Fairies' Well.
- Chapter 43
The Inn at Bangor - Port Dyn Norwig - Sea Serpent - Thoroughly Welsh Place - Blessing of Health.
- Chapter 44
National School - The Young Preacher - Pont Bettws - Spanish Words - Two Tongues, Two Faces - The Elephant's Snout - Llyn Cwellyn - The Snowdon Ranger - My House - Castell y Cidwm - Descent to Beth Gelert.
- Chapter 45
Inn at Beth Gelert - Delectable Company - Lieutenant P-.
- Chapter 46
The Valley of Gelert - Legend of the Dog - Magnificent Scenery - The Knicht - Goats in Wales - The Frightful Crag -Temperance House - Smile and Curtsey.
- Chapter 47
Spanish Proverb - The Short Cut - Predestinations - Rhys Goch - Old Crusty - Undercharging - The Cavalier.
- Chapter 48
The Bill - The Two Mountains - Sheet of Water - The Afanc-Crocodile- The Afanc-Beaver - Tai Hirion - Kind Woman - Arenig Vawr -The Beam and Mote - Bala.
- Chapter 49
Tom Jenkins - Ale of Bala - Sober Moments - Local Prejudices - The States - Unprejudiced Man - Welsh Pensilvanian Settlers - Drapery Line - Evening Saunter.
- Chapter 50
The Breakfast - The Tomen Bala - El Punto de la Vana.
- Chapter 51
The Ladies of Llangollen - Sir Alured - Eisteddfodau -Pleasure and Care.
- Chapter 52
The Treachery of the Long Knives - The North Briton -The Wounded Butcher - The Prisoner.
- Chapter 53
The Dylluan - The Oldest Creatures.
- Chapter 54
Chirk - The Middleton Family - Castell y Waen - The Park - The Court Yard - The Young Housekeeper - The Portraits - Melin y Castell - Humble Meal - Fine Chests for the Dead -Hales and Hercules.
- Chapter 55
A Visitor - Apprenticeship to the Law - Croch Daranau - Lope de Vega - No Life like the Traveller's.
- Chapter 56
Ringing of Bells - Battle of Alma - The Brown Jug -Ale of Llangollen - Reverses.
- Chapter 57
The Newspaper - A New Walk - Pentre y Dwr -Oatmeal and Barley-Meal - The Man on Horseback - Heavy News.
- Chapter 58
Sunday Night - Sleep, Sin, and Old Age - The Dream - Lanikin Figure - A Literary Purchase.
- Chapter 59
History of Twm O'r Nant - Eagerness for Learning - The First Interlude - The Cruel Fighter - Raising Wood - The Luckless Hour - Turnpike-Keeping - Death in the Snow - Tom's Great Feat - The Muse a Friend - Strength in Old Age - Resurrection of the Dead.
- Chapter 60
Mystery Plays - The Two Prime Opponents - Analysis of Interlude - Riches and Poverty - Tom's Grand Qualities.
- Chapter 61
Set out for Wrexham - Craig y Forwyn - Uncertainty - The Collier - Cadogan Hall - Methodistical Volume.
- Chapter 62
Rhiwabon Road - The Public-house Keeper - No Welsh - The Wrong Road - The Good Wife.
- Chapter 63
Preparations for Departure - Cat provided for - A Pleasant Party - Last Night at Llangollen.
- Chapter 64
Departure for South Wales - Tregeiriog - Pleasing Scene - Trying to Read - Garmon and Lupus - The Cracked Voice - Effect of a Compliment - Llan Rhyadr.
- Chapter 65
Inn at Llan Rhyadr - A low Englishman - Enquiries - The Cook - A Precious Couple.
- Chapter 66
Sycharth - The Kindly Welcome - Happy Couple - Sycharth - Recalling the Dead - Ode to Sycharth.
- Chapter 67
Cup of Coffee - Gwen - Bluff old Fellow - A Rabble Rout - All from Wrexham.
- Chapter 68
Llan Silin Church - Tomb of Huw Morris - Barbara and Richard - Welsh Country Clergyman - The Swearing Lad - Anglo-Saxon Devils.
- Chapter 69
Church of Llan Rhyadr - The Clerk - The Tablet - Stone - First View of the Cataract.
- Chapter 70
Mountain Scenery - The Rhyadr - Wonderful Feat.
- Chapter 71
Wild Moors - The Guide - Scientific Discourse - The Land of Arthur - The Umbrella - Arrival at Bala.
- Chapter 72
Cheerful Fire - Immense Man - Doctor Jones - Recognition - A Fast Young Man - Excellent Remarks - Disappointment.
- Chapter 73
Breakfast - The Freckled Maid - Llan uwch Llyn - The Landlady - Llewarch Hen - Conversions to the Church.
- Chapter 74
Proceed on Journey - The Lad and Dog - Old Bala - The Pass - Extensive View - The Two Men - The Tap Nyth - The Meeting of the Waters - The Wild Valley - Dinas Mawddwy.
- Chapter 75
Inn at Mallwyd - A Dialogue - The Cumro.
- Chapter 76
Mallwyd and its Church - Sons of Shoemakers -Village Inn - Dottings.
- Chapter 77
The Deaf Man - Funeral Procession - The Lone Family - The Welsh and their Secrets - The Vale of the Dyfi - The Bright Moon.
- Chapter 78
Welsh Poems - Sessions Business - The Lawyer and his Client - The Court - The Two Keepers - The Defence.
- Chapter 79
Machynlleth - Remarkable Events - Ode to Glendower - Dafydd Gam - Lawdden's Hatchet.
- Chapter 80
The Old Ostler - Directions - Church of England Man - The Deep Dingle - The Two Women - The Cutty Pipe - Waen y Bwlch - The Deaf and Dumb - The Glazed Hat.
- Chapter 81
The Mining Compting Room - Native of Aberystwyth - Story of a Bloodhound - The Young Girls - The Miner's Tale -Gwen Frwd - The Terfyn.
- Chapter 82
Consequential Landlord - Cheek - Darfel Gatherel - Dafydd Nanmor - Sheep Farms - Wholesome Advice - The Old Postman - The Plant de Bat - The Robber's Cavern.
- Chapter 83
Wild Scenery - Awful Chasm - John Greaves - Durham County - Queen Philippa - The Two Aldens - Welsh Wife - The Noblest Business - The Welsh and the Salve - The Lad John.
- Chapter 84
The Hospice - The Two Rivers - The Devil's Bridge - Pleasant Recollections.
- Chapter 85
Dinner at the Hospice - Evening Gossip - A Day of Rain - A Scanty Flock - The Bridge of the Minister - Legs in Danger.
- Chapter 86
Birth and Early Years of Ab Gwilym - Morfudd - Relic of Druidism - The Men of Glamorgan - Legend of Ab Gwilym - Ab Gwilym as a Writer - Wonderful Variety - Objects of Nature - Gruffydd Gryg.
- Chapter 87
Start for Plynlimmon - Plynlimmon's Celebrity - Troed Rhiw Goch.
- Chapter 88
The Guide - The Great Plynlimmon - A Dangerous Path - Source of the Rheidol - Source of the Severn - Pennillion -Old Times and New - The Corpse Candle - Supper.
- Chapter 89
A Morning View - Hafod Ychdryd - The Monument - Fairy-looking Place - Edward Lhuyd.
- Chapter 90
An Adventure - Spytty Ystwyth - Wormwood.
- Chapter 91
Pont y Rhyd Fendigaid - Strata Florida - The Yew-Tree - Idolatry - The Teivi - The Llostlydan.
- Chapter 92
Nocturnal Journey - Maes y Lynn - The Figure - Earl of Leicester - Twm Shone Catti - The Farmer and Bull - Tom and the Farmer - The Cave - The Threat - Tom a Justice - The Big Wigs - Tregaron.
- Chapter 93
Tregaron Church - The Minister - Good Morning -Tom Shone's Disguises - Tom and the Lady - Klim and Catti.
- Chapter 94
Llan Ddewi Brefi - Pelagian Heresy - Hu Gadarn - God of Agriculture - The Silver Cup - Rude Tablet.
- Chapter 95
Lampeter - The Monk Austin - The Three Publicans - The Tombstone - Sudden Change - Trampers - A Catholic - The Bridge of Twrch.
- Chapter 96
"Pump Saint" - Pleasant Residence - The Watery Coom - Philological Fact - Evening Service - Meditation.
- Chapter 97
Llandovery - Griffith ap Nicholas - Powerful Enemies - Last Words -Llandovery Church - Rees Pritchard - The Wiser Creature - God's better than All - The Old Vicarage.
- Chapter 98
Departure from Llandovery - A Bitter Methodist - North and South - The Caravan - Captain Bosvile - Deputy Ranger - A Scrimmage - The Heavenly Gwynfa - Dangerous Position.
- Chapter 99
Inn at Gutter Vawr - The Hurly-burly - Bara y Caws - Change of Manner - Welsh Mistrust - Wonders of Russia - The Emperor - The Grand Ghost Story.
- Chapter 100
Morning - A Cheerless Scene - The Carter - Ode to Glamorgan - Startling Halloo - One-sided Liberty - Clerical Profession - De Courcy - Love of the Drop - Independent Spirit - Another People.
- Chapter 101
Swansea - The Flemings - Towards England.
- Chapter 102
Leave Swansea - The Pandemonium - Neath Abbey - Varied Scenery.
- Chapter 103
Town of Neath - Hounds and Huntsman - Spectral Chapel - The Glowing Mountain
- Chapter 104
Iron and Coal - The Martyred Princess - Cyfartha Fawr - Diabolical Structure.
- Chapter 105
Start for Caerfili - Johanna Colgan - Alms-Giving - The Monstrous Female - The Evil Prayer - The Next Day - The Aifrionn - Unclean Spirits -Expectation - Wreaking Vengeance - A decent Alms.
- Chapter 106
Pen y Glas - Salt of the Earth - The Quakers' Yard - The Rhugylgroen.
- Chapter 107
Caerfili Castle - Sir Charles - The Waiter - Inkerman.
- Chapter 108
Town of Newport - The Usk - Note of Recognition - An Old Acquaintance - Connamara Quean - The Wake - The Wild Irish -The Tramping Life - Business and Prayer - Methodists - Good Counsel.
- Chapter 109
Arrival at Chepstow - Stirring Lyric - Conclusion.
- Cumro And Cumraeg
WALES is a country interesting in many respects, and deserving of more attention than it has hitherto met with. Though not very extensive, it is one of the most picturesque countries in the world, a country in which Nature displays herself in her wildest, boldest, and occasionally loveliest forms. The inhabitants, who speak an ancient and peculiar language, do not call this region Wales, nor themselves Welsh. They call themselves Cymry or Cumry, and their country Cymru, or the land of the Cumry. Wales or Wallia, however, is the true, proper, and without doubt original name, as it relates not to any particular race, which at present inhabits it, or may have sojourned in it at any long bygone period, but to the country itself. Wales signifies a land of mountains, of vales, of dingles, chasms, and springs. It is connected with the Cumbric bal, a protuberance, a springing forth; with the Celtic beul or beal, a mouth; with the old English welle, a fountain; with the original name of Italy, still called by the Germans Welschland; with Balkan and Vulcan, both of which signify a casting out, an eruption; with Welint or Wayland, the name of the Anglo-Saxon god of the forge; with the Chaldee val, a forest, and the German wald; with the English bluff, and the Sanscrit palava - startling assertions, no doubt, at least to some; which are, however, quite true, and which at some future time will be universally acknowledged so to be.
But it is not for its scenery alone that Wales is deserving of being visited; scenery soon palls unless it is associated with remarkable events, and the names of remarkable men. Perhaps there is no country in the whole world which has been the scene of events more stirring and remarkable than those recorded in the history of Wales. What other country has been the scene of a struggle so deadly, so embittered, and protracted as that between the Cumro and the Saxon? - A struggle which did not terminate at Caernarvon, when Edward Longshanks foisted his young son upon the Welsh chieftains as Prince of Wales; but was kept up till the battle of Bosworth Field, when a prince of Cumric blood won the crown of fair Britain, verifying the olden word which had cheered the hearts of the Ancient Britons for at least a thousand years, even in times of the darkest distress and gloom:-
"But after long pain Repose we shall obtain, When sway barbaric has purg'd us clean; And Britons shall regain Their crown and their domain, And the foreign oppressor be no more seen."
Of remarkable men Wales has assuredly produced its full share. First, to speak of men of action:- there was Madoc, the son of Owain Gwynedd, who discovered America, centuries before Columbus was born; then there was "the irregular and wild Glendower," who turned rebel at the age of sixty, was crowned King of Wales at Machynlleth, and for fourteen years contrived to hold his own against the whole power of England; then there was Ryce Ap Thomas, the best soldier of his time, whose hands placed the British crown on the brow of Henry the Seventh, and whom bluff Henry the Eighth delighted to call Father Preece; then there was - who? - why Harry Morgan, who led those tremendous fellows the Buccaneers across the Isthmus of Darien to the sack and burning of Panama.
What, a buccaneer in the list? Ay! and why not? Morgan was a scourge, it is true, but he was a scourge of God on the cruel Spaniards of the New World, the merciless task-masters and butchers of the Indian race: on which account God favoured and prospered him, permitting him to attain the noble age of ninety, and to die peacefully and tranquilly at Jamaica, whilst smoking his pipe in his shady arbour, with his smiling plantation of sugar-canes full in view. How unlike the fate of Harry Morgan to that of Lolonois, a being as daring and enterprising as the Welshman, but a monster without ruth or discrimination, terrible to friend and foe, who perished by the hands, not of the Spaniards, but of the Indians, who tore him limb from limb, burning his members, yet quivering, in the fire - which very Indians Morgan contrived to make his own firm friends, and whose difficult language he spoke with the same facility as English, Spanish, and his own South Welsh.
For men of genius Wales during a long period was particularly celebrated. - Who has not heard of the Welsh Bards? though it is true that, beyond the borders of Wales, only a very few are acquainted with their songs, owing to the language, by no means an easy one, in which they were composed. Honour to them all! everlasting glory to the three greatest - Taliesin, Ab Gwilym and Gronwy Owen: the first a professed Christian, but in reality a Druid, whose poems fling great light on the doctrines of the primitive priesthood of Europe, which correspond remarkably with the philosophy of the Hindus, before the time of Brahma: the second the grand poet of Nature, the contemporary of Chaucer, but worth half a dozen of the accomplished word-master, the ingenious versifier of Norman and Italian tales: the third a learned and irreproachable minister of the Church of England, and one of the greatest poets of the last century, who after several narrow escapes from starvation both in England and Wales, died master of a paltry school at New Brunswick, in North America, sometime about the year 1780.
But Wales has something besides its wonderful scenery, its eventful history, and its illustrious men of yore to interest the visitor. Wales has a population, and a remarkable one. There are countries, besides Wales, abounding with noble scenery, rich in eventful histories, and which are not sparingly dotted with the birthplaces of heroes and poets, in which at the present day there is either no population at all, or one of a character which is anything but attractive. Of a country in the first predicament, the Scottish Highlands afford an example: What a country is that Highland region! What scenery! and what associations! If Wales has its Snowdon and Cader Idris, the Highlands have their Hill of the Water Dogs, and that of the Swarthy Swine: If Wales has a history, so have the Highlands - not indeed so remarkable as that of Wales, but eventful enough: If Wales has had its heroes, its Glendower and Father Pryce, the Highlands have had their Evan Cameron and Ranald of Moydart; If Wales has had its romantic characters, its Griffith Ap Nicholas and Harry Morgan, the Highlands have had Rob Roy and that strange fellow Donald Macleod, the man of the broadsword, the leader of the Freacadan Dhu, who at Fontenoy caused, the Lord only knows, how many Frenchmen's heads to fly off their shoulders, who lived to the age of one hundred and seven, and at seventy-one performed gallant service on the Heights of Abraham: wrapped in whose plaid the dying Wolfe was carried from the hill of victory. - If Wales has been a land of song, have not the Highlands also? - If Wales can boast of Ab Gwilym and Gronwy, the Highlands can boast of Ossian and MacIntyre. In many respects the two regions are equals or nearly so; - In one respect, however, a matter of the present day, and a very important matter too, they are anything but equals: Wales has a population - but where is that of the Highlands? - Plenty of noble scene; Plenty of delightful associations, historical, poetical, and romantic - but, but, where is the population?
The population of Wales has not departed across the Atlantic, like that of the Highlands; it remains at home, and a remarkable population it is - very different from the present inhabitants of several beautiful lands of olden fame, who have strangely degenerated from their forefathers. Wales has not only a population, but a highly interesting one - hardy and frugal, yet kind and hospitable - a bit crazed, it is true, on the subject of religion, but still retaining plenty of old Celtic peculiarities, and still speaking Diolch i Duw! - the language of Glendower and the Bards.
The present is a book about Wales and Welsh matters. He who does me the honour of perusing it will be conducted to many a spot not only remarkable for picturesqueness, but for having been the scene of some extraordinary event, or the birth-place or residence of a hero or a man of genius; he will likewise be not unfrequently introduced to the genuine Welsh, and made acquainted with what they have to say about Cumro and Saxon, buying and selling, fattening hogs and poultry, Methodism and baptism, and the poor, persecuted Church of England.
An account of the language of Wales will be found in the last chapter. It has many features and words in common with the Sanscrit, and many which seem peculiar to itself, or rather to the family of languages, generally called the Celtic, to which it belongs. Though not an original tongue, for indeed no original tongue, or anything approximating to one, at present exists, it is certainly of immense antiquity, indeed almost entitled in that respect to dispute the palm with the grand tongue of India, on which in some respects it flings nearly as much elucidation as it itself receives in others. Amongst the words quoted in the chapter alluded to I wish particularly to direct the reader's attention to gwr, a man, and gwres, heat; to which may be added gwreichionen, a spark. Does not the striking similarity between these words warrant the supposition that the ancient Cumry entertained the idea that man and fire were one and the same, even like the ancient Hindus, who believed that man sprang from fire, and whose word vira, (1) which signifies a strong man, a hero, signifies also fire?
There are of course faults and inaccuracies in the work; but I have reason to believe that they are neither numerous nor important: I may have occasionally given a wrong name to a hill or a brook; or may have overstated or understated, by a furlong, the distance between one hamlet and another; or even committed the blunder of saying that Mr Jones Ap Jenkins lived in this or that homestead, whereas in reality Mr Jenkins Ap Jones honoured it with his residence: I may be chargeable with such inaccuracies; in which case I beg to express due sorrow for them, and at the same time a hope that I have afforded information about matters relating to Wales which more than atones for them. It would be as well if those who exhibit eagerness to expose the faults of a book would occasionally have the candour to say a word or two about its merits; such a wish, however, is not likely to be gratified, unless indeed they wisely take a hint from the following lines, translated from a cywydd of the last of the great poets of Wales:
"All can perceive a fault, where there is one - A dirty scamp will find one, where there's none." (2)
(1) That vira at one time meant man in general, as well as fire, there can be no doubt. It is singular how this word or something strikingly like it, occurs in various European languages, sometimes as man, sometimes as fire. Vir in Latin signifies man, but vuur in Dutch signifies fire. In like manner fear in Irish signifies a man, but fire in English signifies the consuming, or, as the Hindus would call it, the producing element.
(2) "Pawb a'i cenfydd, o bydd bai, A Bawddyn, er na byddai." - GRONWY OWEN.